The story of two sacred trees – a modern fairy tale

March 28th, 2017 § 0 comments

This story has been written using a Python script and scraped data from the website of Jubelparkmuseum. The story, the code and all the sources are published under a Free Art License:
The main scripts were developed in the framework of DiVersions, a residency of Constant in Musée du Cinquantenaire in December 2016. With a warm thank you to Constant & the Jubelparkmuseum for the tools and the data!

This is what I know about myself.
The description given to me is that of a sacred tree. I am included in the Near East Collection. In case you decide to dress me one day: my height is 75 cm, my width is 87 cm. I have been tagged a relief. I have been categorized with the number o.00271. My body is made of stone. My great grand parents must have lived before -883 / -859. I should be able to find some relatives in Near and Middle East (Asia) as my place of production, and in Nimrud (Asia > Mesopotamia > Assyria) as my place of discovery: . My cultural background is Assyrian.

I have one close friend here.
She has also been catalogued as a sacred tree. Someone also decided to list her in the Near East Collection. Someone measured her height: 51 cm, and width: 94 cm. She is also commonly named a relief. I guess you would say her official name is o.00278. The material of her body is stone. And just like me, she is very very old, from -883 / -859. Her geographical origin is exactly the same: place of production: Near and Middle East (Asia), place of discovery: Nimrud (Asia > Mesopotamia > Assyria). She also belongs to the Assyrian culture.

We have long conversations in whispers. Our main topic is the questioning of our identities. We are sacred and we are very proud of that. But if only we knew what kind of sacred trees we are. We found out there are another hundred and fifteen objects in the collection that are tagged with the word ‘tree’, but there is only one other that carries the name ‘sacred tree’. Let me ask him to introduce herself. You will immediately notice he is a much more complex being.

Hi! I am a cylinder seal with hero and the sacred tree. I have been classified in the Near East Collection. These are my measurements: height: 2,7 cm, width: 1,1 cm. The name given to me is cylinder seal. Translated to an index, I am o.01387. My bones are of stone. My great grand parents must have lived before -1500 / -1201. My place of birth is place of production (historical): mesopotamia (asia). My cultural background is assyrian.

You see, he is not only a sacred tree, he is a ‘hero and a sacred tree’. Thanks to conversations with him, Relief and I realized that our question is much more simple than his. If we could solve our question somehow, Cylinder Seal’s identity will be half revealed as well. That is what triggered the decision of Relief to go on an adventurous journey through the collection.

All of a sudden our lives became thrilling. Only by proposing the idea of the journey, for example, made us realize we did not even know where we were located. Where are we? To which collection do we belong? It took us an enormous amount of courage to break out of our fields and start to explore. At node 2070 we found the nicely formulated answer to our first question: “Carmentis is the online museum catalogue of the Royal Museums of Art and History (RMAH), presenting the digitized objects of our diverse permanent collections that range from Egyptian objects to musical instruments from the Musical Instrument Museum to the collection of historic carriages based in the Museum of the Cinquantenaire. Carmentis is named after the Roman goddess of childbirth, who was associated with technological innovation and the invention of the Latin alphabet.”

I would have loved to know how many other beings were part of Carmentis, but the mere idea overwhelmed us.
‘Stay focussed,’ Relief said. ‘We are only interested in finding out what kind of tree we might be.’ It was good to be reminded of that, because the world out here is immense. ‘Where to go to first?’ I asked her, despairing.
For days we kept quiet, not knowing how to proceed.
‘What’s happening to you? I don’t hear from you anymore?’ the Cylinder Seal asked. When he heard our trouble, he smiled. It turns out to be very useful to have a hero as part of your personality. He proposed to start looking for the material of the tree, the wood present in the collection.
‘Maybe those trees will be more defined,’ she said. With shaky hearts we took off.

There are two types of wood in the collection: Hardwood and Softwood. On the menu – which is endlessly long – we found fifty six types of Hardwood and only six types of Softwood. We read the list of Softwoods tenderly: Cedar, Cypress, Fir, Juniper, Norway Spruce, and Pine.
We looked at each other and immediately agreed we intuitively felt closer to the Hardwoods: Acacia, African Blackwood, African Ebony, American Mahogany, Apricot, Ash, Beech, Big Leaf Mahogany, Birch, Black Elder, False Brandybush, Brazilwood, Brazilian Tulipwood, Common Hazel, Dalbergia cearensis, Dalbergia latifolia, Dalbergia nigra, Dogwood, Ebony, Elm, Eucalyptus, European Boxwood, European Ash, European Beech, European Birch, European Cherry, Hickory, Hornbeam, Lemonwood, Lime, Lusumbya, Manna Ash, Maple, Mheme, Mninga Mtumbati, Mulberry, Oak, Olive tree, Opepe, Pear, Plane Wood, Plum, Poplar, Rohida-tree, Rosewood, Satin, Shagbark Hickory, Snakewood, Spider-tresses, Sweet Chestnut, Sycamore, Tilia Americana, Tilia Europaea, Tilla Euchlora, Toromiro, Walnut, Yew.
Happiness filled our hearts. Even if we had no idea what the names meant, the fact that our focus had been reduced to only fifty six options made us drunk with joy. When we came back to our fields, we kissed Cylinder Seal with such gratitude, we almost merged.
Once cooled down, we realized the journey was still immensely long. No less than two thousand seven hundred twenty one beings in the collection were categorised as Hardwoods. We needed a new strategy.

We decided to nominate Cylinder Seal as our compass, as his arguments again seemed very reasonable to us.
‘All trees on earth are sacred,’ he concluded. ‘Humans might not always be aware of it. If they call a tree sacred, it must be that it is very important for their community. The chance that the commonest trees throughout history end up being the most important seems quite plausible. I guess you must be made of the same wood as the big tree hits of the collection.’ His words almost sounded like a prophecy!
It did not take us that long to ascertain the most popular trees present in Carmentis. ‘Ebony’ superseded all the others with one thousand forty three objects. But Relief, sharp as always, noticed there was also a tree called ‘African ebony’ with sixty four hits. The confusion was huge. The only solution was to ask the objects themselves.
African ebony is only used in the Collection of Musical Instruments, while Ebony – even if nine hundred seventy nine out of the one thousand forty three objects are part of the Musical Instruments – is used in collections such as Sculptures and Furniture, Arms and Armour, Egypt, Preciosa and Silverware, China and something called External Collections. Wow, a first glance into our universe showed us a richness we had never dared to dream of. Our imagination was fired by the thought that the Near East Collection was part of such a great galaxy. We wanted to explore them all, but we were strong, and decided to keep our focus. Although Relief was triggered by the word Preciosa. So before moving on, we went to meet some of their species.

Object nr 1 was doubting about everything.
“Do you believe I am large, having a height of 36,4 cm?,” she asked. “Do you believe I am a coffeepot? And that my inventory number is 4183? Is it true I am composed of ebony (diospyros sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood) and silver (metal)? And how can I find out I was born in the era of 1765? Can you confirm I was produced in Brussels city (Europe > Western Europe > Belgium > Brussels-Capital Region)? Because you know, it is hard to be someone of which the culture is non-defined.” All ebony objects in the Collection of Preciosa and Silverware turned out to have a non-defined Culture. And all of them were in deep existential crisis. There was another coffeepot of a similar size produced in Mons, and two crosses of the same period. One was a pendant (jewellery) from Spain, born in 1601/1700. The other was a terribly depressed crucifix of 75.1 cm, made of stone, ebony and silver. The poor thing did not know where he was produced, what culture he belonged to and as he said with a deep sigh: “If you’re a crucifix knowing only that you’ve been produced somewhere on earth in the period between 1601 and 1700, you feel like a mass product.”
We tried to cheer them up as much as possible, encouraging them to find out the answers, if only for the sake of the journey. It would give them the spice of life. But they seemed to be deaf to our plans. And we were happy to return to the major ebony collection, that of the Musical Instruments.
“Maybe we can just concentrate on them for now,’ Relief suggested. ‘Even if they have no data, each musical instrument must live with the memories of the sounds it has generated. I bet they’re the most joyful creatures we’ll ever meet.”
She was right. As always.

We paid a visit to the ebony beings in the Collection of Musical Instruments. A crowd of nine hundred seventy nine objects was represented by a hundred and forty three types of instruments. We were impressed by the number of different trees used in the body of a Musical Instrument. When we expressed this amazement to the first one we met, a Traverse flute born in Belgium in 1700, she pointed us in the direction of the pianos.
“Just ask to be introduced to a grand piano,” she whispered.
And so we did. One of the largest pianos spoke to us in a low voice: “I am called a piano à queue / luthéal. I am included in the Musical Instruments Collection. This is my size: height: 98,3 cm, width: 142 cm, depth: 160 cm. I have been tagged as a grand piano. If one day I were to carry an ID card, its number would be 3613. My bones are of brass (alloy) (metal > alloy > copper alloy), steel (metal > alloy > iron alloy), tilia americana (american linden) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood > lime (tilia sp.)), hornbeam (carpinus sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood), fir (abies sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > softwood), rosewood (dalbergia sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood), walnut (juglans sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood), ivory (animal > tooth > mammal tooth), celluloid (processed material > synthetic > plastic), american mahogany (swietenia sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood), copper (metal), norway spruce (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > softwood), ebony (diospyros sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood), beech (fagus sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood), tanned leather (processed material > > leather), iron (metal), bronze (metal > alloy > copper alloy), oak (quercus sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > hardwood), felt (processed material > > textile), maple (acer sp.) (vegetal > wood (vegetal material) > and hardwood), cast iron (metal > iron). My history dates back to 1911. I come from Belgium (Europe > Western Europe).”

We thanked the piano and focused on our research again. The majority groups consisted of violins and bows. We gazed at them while wondering how they managed to get on, as there were only one hundred and thirty three bows for one hundred and seventy two violins. We tried to find out, but they were extremely discrete.
“We’re only playing in our imagination,” a German mute violin born in 1901 / 1925 finally admitted. Her body was a void, but her voice was soft as feathers. “In the realm of your imagination you can play with whom you prefer, really. I often even play with twenty bows at once. It is a sensation I never experienced when played by humans, but when I picture it and listen to the sounds I might produce, it gives me the ultimate pleasure.” This was the first time we learned about a practise of imagination. It touched us deeply as we never even thought of the possibility of cultivating that dimension.
As for the wood types, the violins were very generous. They showed us their body parts made of ebony. And they continued naming all other parts. As we watched, we realized almost all violins are made of Norway Spruce, a pine that is commonly used as a Christmas tree. The fact that Norway Spruce is a softwood struck me. I felt so closely connected to it, that I started wondering if we were exploring the right path. But I decided to keep that thought to myself. Such a radical questioning of our journey would only upset my dear friend.
None of the violins knew why they were made of Ebony and not African ebony.
“Violins must exist made of African ebony,” Violon Expérimental nr 3370-01 uttered. “If you could find one, you could compare.”
“Thanks, that is a great idea!”

The suggestion was beautiful but the reality not. None of the Musical Instruments made with ‘African ebony’ was a violin. Our confusion caught their attention. After listening to our story and confessing none of them even knew there was another type of ebony that was not African, the Automatic Harmonium with keyboard, born in 1891/1910 in New York and in close contact with his compatriots in the Collection, showed us the way to the internet. We ran into a long tunnel, passed all possible protocols and stepped into yet another Milky Way of our Galaxy. The concept of abundance was too little to describe what we felt. All of a sudden, we had been reduced to tiny pieces of stardust in the nutshell that was our collection. It took us some time to get used to that quick resizing. But once we did, we found a description of Ebony in less than a second, on Wikipedia: ‘Ebony is a dense black hardwood, most commonly yielded by several different species in the genus Diospyros, which also contains the persimmons. Ebony is dense enough to sink in water. It is finely-textured and has a very smooth finish when polished, making it valuable as an ornamental wood.’
And here was the exact answer to our question: ‘Species of ebony include Diospyros ebenum (Ceylon ebony), native to southern India and Sri Lanka; Diospyros crassiflora (Gabon ebony), native to western Africa; and Diospyros celebica (Makassar ebony), native to Indonesia and prized for its luxuriant, multi-colored wood grain. Mauritius ebony, Diospyros tesselaria, was largely exploited by the Dutch in the 17th century. Some species in the genus Diospyros yield an ebony with similar physical properties, but striped rather than evenly black (Diospyros ebenum).’

“All this is very interesting,” Relief commented. “And I’m very exited we are making this journey, but it feels as if we are on a wrong track.” I held my breath. Maybe she was thinking just like me, that we had chosen the wrong journey. “You know,” she continued, “while observing all these violins and bows, and all these reed organs, I realized they were all produced by humans to be played by humans, or rather, to be used by humans. You see where I am going?”
“Well, I…” but Relief kept up her reasoning.
“If we are sacred trees, it is because humans named us so. Do you really think they would name trees sacred if the next day they would make objects out of them, objects to be used by anyone?”
“Musicians are not anyone.”
“You get what I mean. Humans would only convey the word sacred to a tree they depend on for their survival.”
“A tree that provides them with food?”
“For example.” I was so impressed by how the journey had activated my friend’s brain, that I totally forgot about my own thoughts. We decided to take a look at the fruit trees in the collection. Walnut turned out to be the most present, followed by Pear.
Sixty four Musical Instruments are made of Walnut, and remarkably so, there are as many objects in Sculptures and Furniture made of Walnut, as there are in Arms and Armour: thirty seven.
“That confirms my hypothesis,” Relief said with conviction. “Ever since they appeared on Earth, there are humans who believe they depend on arms for their survival, so it is comprehensible they would use sacred wood for them. Let’s have a look!’

Thirteen pistols lived next to another thirteen revolvers (firearms), seven rifles (long guns) and four bayonets. All but three arms were born in the 19th century. Did that tell us something about the notion of sacred trees or rather about the nature of our collection? Impossible to know.
“Let’s have a look at where they were born,” Relief suggested. But that did not give us more clues either. Twenty four arms were produced in Europe, one in South America, two in North America and ten were of non-defined origin.
“Maybe we should try another fruit tree.” My voice sounded tired. My friend noticed. I admitted that my enthusiasm was flagging, as I felt that our question had endless answers – or none.
“We‘d better start with the less frequent fruit trees. That will make for a very short trip. There is only one Mulberry, one Apricot and one Sweet Chestnut.” They were yet another three Musical Instruments. One of them was a beautiful tar from Tehran, produced before 2010, made of Mulberry, Bullhorn, Gut and Lamb skin. Sweet Chestnut was part of a harpsichord born in Italy between 1600 and 1700. The Chestnut was in the excellent company of Poplar and Cypress. When we approached Apricot, we experienced for the first time on our journey a strange energy. The young string instrument did not want to meet us as beings, his intention was hostile. He was a very exotic ghichak from Xinjiang in China, born in 2003. He came closer and seemed to want something from us. It was clear we had no other defense than our stone bodies. I put myself upright.
“What is it you’re looking for?”
“I want your inventory number now!” With one little shake of my body, the ghichak realized he had no choice and was about to run off.
“Hey wait!” Relief had spoken gently. “Why is it you want ours if you have one yourself?” The ghichak looked at us with great sadness and frustration.
“How would you feel if you would be born in this place, but be part of something called External Collection? You’re in but fuck you, you’re out!” He left and we felt pity for him.
Ghickak did not help us. Our research did not seem to make any sense at all.
“Cylinder Seal might not have been right or wrong,” Relief commented when she noticed the limits of my patience. “Maybe sacred trees are not related at all to abundance nor scarcity.”
“So what could we eventually be related to?” I asked, almost in tears.
“To ourselves?”
“Yes indeed, you are absolutely right, when it comes to knowing who we are, we can only relate to ourselves. Let’s look back at the other aspects we know for sure.”

With renewed energy we continued our travels. First, we decided to look for objects that dated from the same period as us: -883 / -859. But none of the objects made of hardwood travelled so far back in time. The longing for the softwood overwhelmed me again, but I kept cool. If ever we had to make another journey, I would definitely propose to take that route into the Galaxy, but not now.
“We should be able to find some tree relatives in our culture,” I posed. The results were depressing. No objects of hardwood in the Assyrian culture.
“And what about softwood?” I shouted, my heart still bouncing with love for the Norway Spruce. The answer came as quickly as my question.
“No objects of softwood in the Assyrian culture.”
We remained in silence for a long moment. In silence we travelled back to Cylinder Seal. He did not have an answer either. I felt the desire to weep bitter tears of loneliness, but before they could come to the surface they transformed with the memories of all the fragments of trees we had met. There had been so much wonder, so much joy and so much love in each encounter that I could not believe we were not somehow connected. A luminous idea came to my mind.
“And if only,” I whispered, “if only we would be named sacred trees because we are all trees united in one?” My soft question caused a tremendous shock, followed by an immense feeling of freedom and relief.
“Of course!” Cylinder Seal shouted out loud. “We are all fifty six trees present in the collection!”
“I beg your pardon,” I corrected him, “we are sixty two trees all together, the Softwoods are us as well.”
“Of course!” Relief hugged me.

Ever since that day we make daily excursions into a large network of peers and we have never been happier. And Cylinder Seal makes even longer journeys, as he also considers all ‘women/woman’ and all ‘men/man’ as his peers. In the evenings we exchange our most happy encounters of the day.


Some numbers

Woods present in objects of the Collection:
[(‘Ebony’, 1034), (‘Maple’, 862), (‘Rosewood’, 725), (‘sycamore’, 416), (‘European Boxwood’, 352), (‘Oak’, 326), (‘Beech’, 239), (‘American mahogany’, 190), (‘Walnut’, 152), (‘African blackwood’, 138), (‘Hornbeam’, 123), (‘Lime’, 118), (‘Tilia Americana’, 102), (‘European beech’, 100), (‘Brasilwood’, 92), (‘Pear’, 78), (‘Poplar’, 72), (‘African ebony’, 64), (‘Elm’, 46), (‘Dalbergia latifolia’, 39), (‘Ash’, 22), (‘Tilia europaea’, 11), (‘Birch’, 10), (‘Satin’, 10), (‘Acacia’, 9), (‘Toromiro’, 8), (‘Plane wood’, 8), (‘European cherry’, 7), (‘Yew’, 7), (‘Lemonwood’, 6), (‘Plum’, 5), (‘Dalbergia nigra’, 4), (‘Opepe’, 4), (‘Shagbark Hickory’, 3), (‘European ash’, 3), (‘Black elder’, 3), (‘Tilla euchlora’, 2), (‘Common Hazel’, 2), (‘Snakewood’, 2), (‘Brandybush, false’, 2), (‘Olive tree’, 2), (‘Mninga, mtumbati’, 2), (‘Big Leaf Mahogany’, 1), (‘Mulberry’, 1), (‘Eucalyptus’, 1), (‘European birch’, 1), (‘Mheme’, 1), (‘Apricot’, 1), (‘Rohida-tree’, 1), (‘spider-tresses’, 1), (‘Dalbergia cearensis’, 1), (‘Brazilian tulipwood’, 1), (‘Dogwood’, 1), (‘lusumbya’, 1), (‘Manna Ash’, 1), (‘Sweet chestnut’, 1)]


Musical Instruments made of “Ebony”: [(‘Violin’, 172), (‘Bow (chordophone component)’, 133), (‘Violoncello’, 53), (‘Guitar’, 46), (‘Upright piano’, 45), (‘Viola’, 42), (‘Grand piano’, 40), (‘Bell (wind instrument component)’, 36), (‘Transverse flute’, 31), (‘Mouthpiece (clarinet and saxophone)’, 27), (‘English guitar’, 25), (‘Reed organ’, 24), (’empty’, 21), (‘High treble viol’, 16), (‘Closet’, 16), (‘Clarinet’, 13), (‘Viola da gamba’, 13), (“Viola d’amore”, 12), (‘Neapolitan mandolin’, 11), (‘Archcittern’, 10), (‘Mandole’, 9), (‘Baton (music equipment)’, 9), (‘Lyre guitar’, 9), (‘Body (wind instrument component)’, 8), (‘Lute’, 8), (‘Piccolo’, 8), (‘Hardanger fiddle’, 7), (‘Theorbo’, 7), (‘Pistol’, 7), (‘Flageolet’, 6), (‘Double bass’, 5), (‘Mandoline’, 4), (‘Lute-guitar’, 4), (‘Pneumatic piano’, 4), (‘Harp’, 4), (‘Bass violin’, 4), (‘Double duct flute’, 4), (‘Fragment’, 3), (‘Fiddle’, 3), (‘Lyre’, 3), (‘Harpsichord’, 3), (‘Wiper’, 3), (“Clarinette d’amour”, 3), (‘Mute violin’, 3), (‘Dulcimer’, 3), (‘Music equipment’, 2), (‘Player piano (met klavier)’, 2), (‘Colascione’, 2), (‘Harpsichord with double keyboard’, 2), (‘Automatic harmonium with keyboard’, 2), (‘Tablet’, 2), (‘Claviharpe’, 2), (‘Armchair’, 2), (‘Vielle organisée’, 2), (“Violin d’amour”, 2), (‘Tenor violin’, 2), (‘Dital harp’, 2), (‘Coffeepot’, 2), (‘Tailpiece (string-holder)’, 2), (‘Cittern’, 2), (‘Viol’, 2), (‘Treble viol’, 2), (‘Harp-guitar’, 2), (‘Recorder’, 2), (‘Sound-board’, 1), (‘Flute’, 1), (‘Piano-harmonium’, 1), (‘Bandora’, 1), (‘Clavichord’, 1), (‘Positive organ’, 1), (‘Ocléal’, 1), (‘Harmonina’, 1), (‘Musical instrument’, 1), (‘Pyramid piano’, 1), (‘Cane violin’, 1), (‘Lyre-bandurria’, 1), (‘Bass clarinet’, 1), (‘Erxian’, 1), (‘Automatic harmonium’, 1), (‘Fife’, 1), (‘Mandoloncello’, 1), (‘Viola pomposa’, 1), (‘Crucifix’, 1), (‘Harpéal’, 1), (‘Revolver (firearm)’, 1), (‘Terpodion’, 1), (‘Harmoniphone’, 1), (‘Piano-violon’, 1), (‘Chess set’, 1), (‘Flaviol’, 1), (‘Double clarinet’, 1), (‘Chromatic harp’, 1), (‘Pegbox’, 1), (‘Wind instrument’, 1), (‘Tenor viol’, 1), (‘Mute’, 1), (‘Bajiao gu’, 1), (‘Screen (furniture)’, 1), (‘Flagon’, 1), (‘Headrest’, 1), (‘Chair’, 1), (‘Sarinda’, 1), (‘Kamancha’, 1), (‘Baryton’, 1), (‘Lira’, 1), (‘Orchestrion’, 1), (‘So duang’, 1), (‘Tuning peg (chordophone component)’, 1), (‘Mouthpiece (brass instrument)’, 1), (‘Oud; Ud’, 1), (‘Cecilium’, 1), (‘Tuning device’, 1), (‘Pendant (jewelry)’, 1), (‘Small case’, 1), (‘Writing and drawing equipment’, 1), (‘Double flageolet’, 1), (‘Descant recorder’, 1), (‘Dulcitone’, 1), (‘Portative organ’, 1), (‘Key (sound device component)’, 1), (‘Wing joint (wind instrument component)’, 1), (‘Cane flute’, 1), (‘Dulcian’, 1), (‘Horn fiddle’, 1), (‘Musical instrument component’, 1), (‘Claviphone’, 1), (‘Bust’, 1), (‘Automatic epinette’, 1), (‘Cimbalom’, 1), (‘Bahut’, 1), (‘Celesta’, 1), (‘Square pianoforte’, 1), (‘Poikilorgue’, 1), (‘Virginal’, 1), (‘Organ’, 1), (‘Muet; Mvet’, 1), (‘Clavéal’, 1), (‘Toy’, 1), (‘Paiban’, 1), (‘Rabab’, 1), (‘Mouth harmonium’, 1), (‘Mandora’, 1), (‘Quwaytara’, 1)]


Musical Instruments made of “African ebony”: [(‘Reed organ’, 24), (‘Upright piano’, 6), (‘Pneumatic piano’, 3), (‘Music equipment’, 2), (‘Claviharpe’, 2), (‘Player piano (met klavier)’, 2), (‘Automatic harmonium with keyboard’, 2), (‘Automatic harmonium’, 1), (‘Musical instrument’, 1), (‘Harpéal’, 1), (‘Portative organ’, 1), (‘Celesta’, 1), (‘Dulcitone’, 1), (‘Terpodion’, 1), (‘Cecilium’, 1), (‘Pyramid piano’, 1), (‘Piano-harmonium’, 1), (‘Organ’, 1), (‘Ocléal’, 1), (‘Harmoniphone’, 1), (‘Square pianoforte’, 1), (‘Automatic epinette’, 1), (‘Poikilorgue’, 1), (‘Harmonina’, 1), (‘Clavéal’, 1), (‘Tuning device’, 1), (‘Piano-violon’, 1), (‘Orchestrion’, 1), (‘Mouth harmonium’, 1), (‘Claviphone’, 1)]


Collections with objects made of “Walnut”: [(‘Collection Musical Instruments’, 64), (‘Collection Sculptures and Furniture’, 37), (‘Collection Arms and Armour’, 37), (‘Collection Carriages’, 12), (‘Collection Preciosa and Silverware’, 1), (‘External collections’, 1)]


Objects made of “Walnut”: [(‘Chair’, 17), (‘Pistol’, 13), (‘Revolver (firearm)’, 13), (‘Closet’, 11), (‘Grand piano’, 9), (‘Upright piano’, 7), (‘Rifle (long gun)’, 7), (‘Berline’, 6), (‘Trumpet marine’, 5), (‘Armchair’, 5), (‘Reed organ’, 4), (‘Bayonet’, 4), (‘Player piano (met klavier)’, 3), (‘Harpsichord’, 3), (‘Virginal’, 2), (‘Viola da gamba’, 2), (‘Violin’, 2), (‘Guitar’, 2), (‘Musical box with cilinder’, 2), (‘Coupé (carriage)’, 2), (‘Violoncello’, 2), (‘Walking stick’, 2), (‘Mandole’, 1), (‘Metronome’, 1), (‘Automobile’, 1), (‘Statue’, 1), (‘Lira’, 1), (‘Bahut’, 1), (‘Pneumatic piano’, 1), (‘Coffeepot’, 1), (‘Komet’, 1), (‘Automatic harmonium’, 1), (‘Hardanger fiddle’, 1), (‘Polyphon’, 1), (‘Harpsichord with double keyboard’, 1), (‘Mandora’, 1), (‘Hommel’, 1), (‘Piano-harmonium’, 1), (‘Clavéal’, 1), (‘Fragment’, 1), (‘Orchestrion’, 1), (‘Cimbalom’, 1), (‘Vielle organisée’, 1), (‘Clavichord’, 1), (‘Bass violin’, 1), (‘Sleigh’, 1), (“Viola d’amore”, 1), (‘Celesta’, 1), (‘Colascione’, 1), (‘Square pianoforte’, 1), (‘Small case’, 1)]

Places of Production of Arms made of “Walnut”: [(‘Place of production: Liège (Europe > Western Europe > Belgium > Wallonia > Liège (province))’, 7), (‘Place of production: Unknown’, 6), (‘Place of production: Saint-Étienne (Europe > Western Europe > France > Rhône-Alpes (region) > Loire (department))’, 4), (‘non-defined’, 4), (‘Place of production: Belgium (Europe > Western Europe)’, 3), (‘Place of production: Dantzig (Europe > Central Europe > Poland > Kuyavian-Pomeranian (voivodship))’, 2), (‘Place of production: Rio de Janeiro (America > South America > Brazil > South-East (region) > Rio de Janeiro (state))’, 1), (‘Place of production: Germany (Europe > Central Europe)’, 1), (‘Place of production: Wiesbaden (Europe > Central Europe > Germany > Hessen (state) > Darmstadt (district))’, 1), (‘Place of production: Western Europe (Europe)’, 1), (‘Place of production: Munich (Europe > Central Europe > Germany > Bavaria (state) > Upper Bavaria (district))’, 1), (‘Place of production: Liège (province) (Europe > Western Europe > Belgium > Wallonia)’, 1), (‘Place of production: England (Europe > Western Europe > United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland > Great-Britain)’, 1), (‘Place of production: Madrid (Europe > Western Europe > Iberian Peninsula > Spain > Madrid (autonomous region) > Madrid (province))’, 1), (‘Place of production: United States (America > North America)’, 1), (‘Place of production: Brussels City (Europe > Western Europe > Belgium > Brussels-Capital Region)’, 1), (‘Place of production: New York (state) (America > North America > United States)’, 1)]

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